- Atlas sportorthopädisch-sporttraumatologische Operationen
- Virtual International Authority File
- Atlas Sportorthopädisch-Sporttraumatologische Operationen (, Hardcover) for sale online | eBay
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In addition, sport is almost unique in that it encourages the integration of children, including those with disabilities, of all social, cultural and ethnic origins and is an instrument to promote gender equality. If sport in general is widely considered a beneficial leisure activity, many specialists agree that competitive sports are not necessarily healthy for young people.
Even public authorities are beginning to consider that sports may potentially present harmful side effects. The human rights framework can be of use in analysing these factors and can help to avoid unfounded and excessive judgements. Scientific evaluations of the economic impact of sport on society are still very scarce. In Switzerland, government institutions and a national health insurance plan published an official study in , which estimated the direct and indirect economic benefits of sporting activities on health in the country at approximately 2. For the purpose of this book, competitive sport is broadly defined as any physical activity whose main objective, for participants, is victory.
Such activity is practised by amateur or professional athletes and organized by a defined, structured and recognized authority. It takes place in an environment strictly codified by established rules. Although there is no standard definition of elite sports, it can be considered to include young athletes who train a minimum of one to two hours a day, at least five days a week. Competitive sports are not systematically harmful to health and they can be practised safely by talented young athletes, as long as appropriate safeguards are in place.
Many children are gifted in a particular field — whether sports, arts, music or another subject — that they can develop in a conducive environment and if they are properly encouraged by adults. Children with a talent for sports have the right to expect support and guidance from their community. But, Winning at any cost 35 although these intensive sports programmes are intended to help young athletes progress, in reality they often put the children at risk as they are expected to accept great sacrifices to attain outstanding results rapidly see Chapter Far too often, however, it exists largely to satisfy adults.
Even more than their peers, children involved in competitive sports grow up in a world dominated by adults with little space for freedom, self-initiative and creativity. Adults — parents, coaches and trainers, officials, managers and agents, journalists and sponsors — control competitive sports at all levels. They each have their own set of interests. Parents often live their own, sometimes frustrated, ambitions through their children or hope their success will alleviate financial burdens Donnelly ; Tofler et al.
Coaches and trainers need to justify their involvement and often prepare their professional future by obtaining successful results.
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Officials have to achieve satisfactory results to ensure the sustainability of their organization and, ultimately, of their sport. Career managers and agents need to get a return on their investment.
Atlas sportorthopädisch-sporttraumatologische Operationen
The media wants positive results to ensure successful television ratings and print sales, while the sports goods industry speculates on attractive events and successful athletes to gain high visibility to market their products. Competitive sports also have great political significance despite the end of the cold war and the dissolution of the East—West race for results and prestige. With victories being a source of great pride in most countries, sport has long been politicized.
But God forbid if I hear any complaints or questions on the eve of your departure for Sydney. We have created an environment that leads to performance. Athletes 36 Winning at any cost have rights, but also obligations. Pleasure is a trendy word.
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Despite the overwhelming emphasis on victory in competitive sports, some champions still see winning in a much wider sense: competing against themselves and trying to improve constantly until they attain excellence. Since the s, sport has become a global, multibillion-dollar affair, which benefits not only companies that produce clothes, toys and dietetic food and vitamins, construct stadiums and manage training centres, but also the media and the entertainment business. This overwhelming and apparently ever-increasing economic success has to be carefully studied from the perspective of the best interests of young athletes.
The fundamental consideration must remain the developmental rights of the child — not the athlete nor his or her sports entourage. The identification and selection processes for gifted young athletes are frequently governed by result-oriented criteria alone. Some children and adolescents are traumatized by the cruel selection system applied in competitive sports, in which only the toughest will make it.
For every champion, a large number of young hopefuls are unable to survive the harsh requirements and are rejected by the system. You put them all in a bottle, and one scorpion will come out alive. Nowadays, the financial, social, media and political pressure on athletes, including the youngest ones, is immense.
In the eyes of many, an athlete who finishes second is a loser; there is only room for winners in a world tailored by competition. Is this the message the sports community wants to get across to help adolescents to fulfil themselves and to build a prosperous and peaceful society?
What safeguards exist to protect these values? Where and by whom are the ambitions and limits set? Political prestige — not necessarily public health considerations — often pushes states to invest heavily in elite sports, even in developing countries. The Kenyan authorities, for example, admitted in that their government: has continued to invest in the development of sports infrastructures.
This investment is aimed at the development of youth character, health and values that strengthen teamwork and national pride. As a result of past government support for sports, Kenya has become a regional and international power in various sports. Government of Kenya para. The Netherlands were classed ahead of Great Britain and Cuba, two traditional sporting nations, and obtained only one Olympic title less than Italy or France and two less than reunified Germany. But in the minds of Dutch sport officials, the perfect score can never be attained.
Corporate business has taken over much elite sport. When a professional athlete wins or loses, the implications are not just human but also commercial — especially now that sport stars not only serve as a vehicle for commercial advertising, but also increasingly carry ideological life-style messages imposed by multinational corporations Klein 50— But would it still have been a good slogan had Hingis lost in the first round?
In the contemporary sport system, champions with no media profile may find themselves pushed aside. Winner of the and World Cup for skiing, 38 Winning at any cost Austrian Stephan Eberharter, has been ostracized by sponsors and the media because they perceive him as boring. Sponsors expect strong personalities, attractive to the media so that they can show them with their brands, as is the case in tennis, athletics, Formula One, football and so many other sports. Payot 30 Businesses are battling to dominate the huge sports market — and young athletes are increasingly caught up in the turmoil.
I admit it is unfortunate that we have to put high school athletes in the middle of this. But Nike is not going to stop. Wetzel and Yaleger Sport clearly mirrors society. In previous years, especially during the cold war, many children were directed into competitive sports to gratify the need for political prestige. Today, political competition has partly been overshadowed by the logic of the new economy and corporate business. But, whether for political prestige or commercial gain, very young athletes still risk being pushed by adults to win, whatever the cost to the children.
So we are taking them out of their fundamental support system. Our window of competition is very small, and I think the kids, the coaches and the parents get caught up, knowing a career might be over at At what age can a child begin to take part in competitive sports?
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Since the s, several authors have tried to find an answer to this question. They agree that before the age of six or seven, a child cannot understand the concept of competition Sherif 18—36; Martens —1; Roberts 37—50; Maffuli Children under the age of nine are incapable of differentiating between the concept of effort and that of ability.
This means that they believe that winning can only be achieved through effort and that losing is the result of not trying hard enough Murphy Babies of just a few months may develop and express a competitive personality and, from a very early age, children may enjoy playing games Hughes ; Frost et al. Crucially, this means that every individual under 18 is entitled to specific human rights, including that of special protection measures due to their vulnerability.
Whilst article 1 includes an escape clause which allows states to set a lower age of majority, the Committee on the Rights of the Child systematically recommends that all countries abide by the internationally defined age of majority, set at 18 years Office of the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights The Convention recognizes the evolving capacity of the child as a fundamental concept.
The maturity and capacity of discernment of children need to be taken into account when enforcing their rights articles 5 and The Convention article Many specialists believe that until the age of 11 or 12 Weiss ; English Sports Council 9; Rowe and Champion —1 , the child athlete puts as much, if not more, importance on factors other than winning: on pleasure, action, informal games, social interaction, improvement of skills and personal involvement see also Chapter 18 and that ranking, medals and titles could be abolished for competitors under the age of 14 Bizzini The child is potentially in danger when adults impose — rather than adapt — their own values, perceptions and physical and mental demands Maffuli Since the s, the age at which children start to participate in competitive sports has dropped drastically.
Despite the fact that children cannot assimilate the concept of competition before the age of six, some are involved in intensive training from a very early age, often between four and six years old — which is lower than the minimum age for starting compulsory education in most countries.
The Committee on the Rights of the Child also monitors different legal minimum ages set by states in various fields, such as legal and medical counselling and medical treatment without parental consent; minimum age to create or join associations; age for sexual consent; age for lodging complaints and seeking redress or participating in administrative and judicial proceedings; etc.
UN Committee on the Rights of the Child 8—9. The age of innocence 41 With the exception of voluntary enlistment and conscription in armed forces, the Committee — rather than the Convention — sets specific minimum age limits according to the principle of the best interest of the child article 3 and his or her evolving capacities. Neither the Convention nor the Committee for the time being has addressed the issue of setting a minimum age for engaging in early intensive training, competing with adults, or in competitive or professional sports although the minimum age for employment could deal with this situation, see Chapter During a convention that year, they adopted the following resolution: Inasmuch as pupils below tenth grade 14 to 15 years old are in the midst of the period of rapid growth … be it therefore resolved that the leaders in the field of physical and health education should do all in their power to discourage interscholastic competition at this age level, because of its strenuous nature.
Murphy 30 Some sports present more risks than others, so minimum ages for participation will also depend on the type of sport practised. In this respect, sports can be divided into four main types: non-contact sports for example, volleyball, track and field, tennis, table tennis, swimming ; contact sports basketball, football, handball, field hockey, water polo ; collision sports ice hockey, American football, rugby, judo ; and combat sports boxing, karate and other martial sports.
The International Olympic Committee IOC , despite being the supreme international sports authority, does not provide for a minimum age for participation in the Olympic Games, nor does it limit participation to adults only over 18 years. The IOC leaves it to the different international sports federations to set such minimum ages, if they deem it necessary.
During the Sydney Olympics, for example, Fatema Gerashi, a year-old from Bahrain, took part in the swimming competitions, while year-old American Cheryl Haworth won the bronze medal for weightlifting in her category. The Assembly sees several advantages in drawing a clearer distinction between juvenile and adult competition 42 The age of innocence classes.
This could be achieved by raising the age limits for participation in certain competitions to 16 or 18 years, depending on the sport, particularly in international competitions and championships. European sports federations and the Olympic movement should be involved in this work. ENGSO , recommendation 3 But both inter-governmental and non-governmental standpoints on minimum age limits have, for the time being, had little impact on sports organizations.
In female gymnastics in particular, athletes are often programmed to reach their peak between the ages of 16 and To reach athletic maturity at such an early age, children obviously need to start intensive training at the earliest possible age, between four and six years old at the very latest. In the s, some of the international sport authorities most concerned with the issue of minimum ages of participation did try to address it, but only as a reaction to widespread media criticism and serious pressure.
Atlas Sportorthopädisch-Sporttraumatologische Operationen (, Hardcover) for sale online | eBay
This does not stop younger divers from competing in other senior competitions, such as the European, American or Asian championships. Gymnast Nadia Comaneci was only 14 when she won her Olympic medals in ; but it was not until that the International Federation of Gymnastics raised to 16 the minimum age for participation in the Olympics. However, to qualify for the Olympics, a gymnast must take part in the world championships, which are organized the year before the Olympics and in which athletes of 15 can participate.
The International Figure Skating Federation raised its minimum age for the Olympics from 14 to 15 in In both female gymnastics and figure skating, only girls who are not fully grown and whose bodies are small and very light can The age of innocence 43 perform the technical skills required to reach the top. Consequently, high-level careers in these sports generally last no longer than three to five years, with top competitors reaching their peak between the ages of 15 and Another sport that attracted negative publicity concerning the age of players was tennis.
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In , at the same time as a new generation of very young champions was appearing on the scene Martina Hingis, Anna Kournikova, Venus and Serena Williams, etc. This rule has been criticized by the parents of some young, talented players. In , Croat Mirjana Lucic won a court case in which she challenged the rule, and the father of a talented American player, Monique Viele, aged 14 at that time, threatened to take legal action against the WTA if it did not agree to let his daughter play the full schedule of professional tournaments Doherty The case did not reach court as the ITF gave in to pressure in It changed its eligibility rules to allow year-olds to participate in seven ITF tournaments and the possibility to obtain a wild-card for one WTA championship a year.
Rules for year-old players were also changed: the maximum number of ITF and WTA championships was raised to 17 in , from the 11 set in In order to guarantee a child protection policy, the IOC should address this issue, undertaking independent, comprehensive research on the compatibility of existing minimum age limits, where they exist, set by different sport federations with international child rights standards.
The study should look at the issue from a wider perspective, examining closely the age at which children are involved in intensive training schemes in relation to the age at which they should reach their peak in competitions. According to the results of its study, the IOC could set a minimum age for participation in the Olympic Games and encourage sports federations to set age limits for participation in competitions.